The midwestern state of Oklahoma is home to about 4 million people. Over 1 million of those people are over the age of 50. According to the United States Census Bureau, about 75% are white, although a significant portion of the population are Native Americans, primarily Cherokee and Choctaw. The state is famous for its farmland, but it has also been a large producer of oil.
As is the case in the rest of the US, many Oklahoma residents struggle with substance abuse and addiction. The opioid epidemic and ongoing struggles with alcohol and illicit drugs have hit the state hard. As a result, substance use disorders were labeled as a public health crisis in Oklahoma in 2019, notes the Oklahoma Policy Institute.
The Landscape of Addiction and Treatment Programs in Oklahoma
According to a 2015-2016 national survey, an estimated 19.3 million adults across the United States struggled with a substance use disorder, and approximately 206,000 of those adults were in Oklahoma. About 14,000 adolescents in Oklahoma struggled with substance use disorders, but about 13,000 Oklahoman 12- to 17-year-olds did not receive needed treatment for substance use. And between 2015 and 2018, there were more than 1,300 newborns who tested positive for substance exposure and experienced withdrawal symptoms shortly after being born, explains the Oklahoma Commission on Opioid Abuse.
Between 1999 and 2016, the number of fatal overdoses from both prescription and illicit drugs increased from 178 to 813 in the state of Oklahoma. In other words, the 2016 fatal overdose rates in Oklahoma were more than 4 times the rates in 1999. This reflects a larger national trend as opioid prescriptions increased from 1999 to 2010. In 2010 alone, there were 814 overdose deaths across the state; that number outpaced motor vehicle accident deaths that year, which totaled 668 people. In 2014, there were 864 people across the state who died from any drug, primarily prescription drugs but also from meth, heroin, and cocaine.
Opioid Addiction: A Severe Epidemic
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2012 Oklahoma had about 127 opioid prescriptions per 100 people. This is over 50% more than the national average of about 82 opioid prescriptions per 100 people. Oklahoma is ranked 5th among U.S. states for the highest prescribing rates of opioids per capita. In 2016, prescription drug abuse in Oklahoma was about 232% more than the national average.
In 2012, a state newspaper reported that Oklahoma ranked number one among all US states for prescription painkiller abuse. By the end of 2009, almost 240,000 Oklahoma residents took prescription pain medication for nonmedical reasons that year. This is about 8% of the state’s population over the age of 11 years old.
According to the CDC, in 2014, Oklahoma ranked in the top 10 states for drug overdose death rates. In one of the deadliest months for prescription drug overdoses on record in Oklahoma, March 2014, an average of almost two people per day died from a prescription drug overdose, for a total of 61 people in that month alone. Although oxycodone and hydrocodone were frequently a part of those overdoses, methadone contributed to 14 overdose deaths, the largest number of any prescription drug.
Oxycodone- and hydrocodone-based prescription painkillers are the most widely prescribed opioid analgesics nationally and thus are commonly misused, but there are many other opioids that are also abused. Methadone contributes to numerous overdoses all over the US, according to the CDC. In Oklahoma, methadone was involved in 106 overdoses in 2010; morphine was involved in 91, and fentanyl was involved in 57 overdose deaths.
A national 2015-2016 survey found that among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in Oklahoma:
- About 4.4% misused prescription painkillers at least once in the previous year.
- About 0.5% had a pain reliever use disorder.
Meth is a problem in Oklahoma, but prescription drug overdose, especially with opioid drugs, is a greater risk. About 72% of drug overdose deaths in Oklahoma in 2014 involved prescription and/or over-the-counter drugs, compared to 28% involving only illegal drugs. The Oklahoma State Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Control (OBN) reported that, in 2016, there were 159 oxycodone-related overdose deaths and 105 hydrocodone-related overdose deaths.
Heroin Addiction Is on the Rise
In 2018 in Oklahoma, more than 40% of drug overdose deaths involved opioids. Across the country, heroin abuse, overdose, and death are on the rise, largely as states and the federal government make it harder for people struggling with opioid addiction to acquire prescription narcotics.
Heroin is extremely addictive, and users who are deprived of it will experience serious withdrawal symptoms including vomiting, severe stomach cramps and tremors, says Oklahoma.Gov. In some cases, withdrawal can even lead to death.
Methamphetamine Abuse Continues
In 2010, meth was reportedly present in 103 overdose victims. However, by 2016, the number of overdoses involving methamphetamines soared – 335 people died from meth overdoses in that year alone, which represents over 40% of all overdose deaths in Oklahoma.
This represented about a 225% increase since 2010. Law enforcement officials believe that the culprit is a rapid influx of meth from Mexican labs because there has been a decline in Oklahoma in small and domestic labs producing meth.
Although most of the meth entering Oklahoma is believed to come from Mexico, the state has still increased the number of meth lab seizures. In 2008, there were reportedly 184 lab seizures; by 2011, there were 993 incidents – an increase of 440%.
Other Prescription Drugs
Analgesics are only one factor in the prescription drug abuse problem. Benzodiazepines often contribute to overdose deaths, especially opioid overdoses. In Oklahoma, Xanax (alprazolam) contributed to 129 overdose deaths in 2014 alone. The National Institute on Drug Abuse noted that over 30% of the overdoses involving opioids nationally also involve benzodiazepines.
In 2015, Valium (diazepam) and Xanax (alprazolam), two drugs in the benzodiazepine class, contributed to 24% of the total number of overdose deaths in Oklahoma, or 195 people. These deaths mainly involved a deadly cocktail of benzodiazepines along with opioids and/or alcohol.
Other Illicit Drugs
Cocaine was found in 37 overdose victims across the state of Oklahoma in 2016, according to OBN.
In a 2017 national survey, about 3.7 % of high school seniors reported using synthetic marijuana at some point in the previous year. In November 2011, Oklahoma made about 250 chemicals often found in synthetic cannabinoids like Spice and K2 illegal. However, the manufacturers of synthetic cannabinoids are known for altering the chemical makeup of their products often so that they do not contain any chemicals classified at that time as illegal.
Alcohol Is Legal but Dangerous
Oklahoma was ranked 11th by the CDC for the highest rates of alcohol poisoning in the country and sixth in the nation for alcohol-related mortality. Based on 2015-2016 surveys, among people ages 12 and older in Oklahoma, an estimated 5.5% have an alcohol use disorder; this is slightly below the national approximation of 5.7%.
Among Oklahoma adults ages 21 and older, 159,000 people reported being heavy drinkers, meaning they had more than 4 alcoholic drinks on 5 or more separate occasions in the last 30 days. Based on 2015-2016 surveys, an estimated 22.8% of Oklahomans over age 17 binge drank in the past month. When considering only 18- to 25-year-olds, this percent was even higher at an estimated 32.4%. For males, binge drinking is defined as drinking 5 or more alcoholic drinks within a couple hours, and for females, it is 4 or more drinks per episode.
Alcohol.org also reports that Native Americans tend to engage in heavy drinking more frequently at 8.3% compared to all other groups at 6.5 percent. Given the large population of Cherokee and Choctaw in the state, this likely factors into alcoholism levels.
According to the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD), research in a hospital emergency department found that, of patients with an occupational injury, 35% were considered at-risk drinkers. Furthermore, NCADD reports that 24% of workers admit to drinking during working hours at least one time in the past year, according to national surveys. In 2016, there were 92 fatal occupational injuries in Oklahoma, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) published a 2014 report regarding substance use and mental health in Oklahoma. Among adolescents ages 12 to 20, past month binge drinking rates in 2012-2013 surveys were marginally higher in Oklahoma than the national average. About 15.4% of adolescents in Oklahoma participated in binge drinking at least once during the month before they were surveyed, while around 14.7% did so nationally. About 62.5% of Oklahoma adolescents, ages 12-17, did not perceive a great risk in drinking more than four drinks once or twice a week, which was slightly higher than the national average of about 60.7%.
According to SAMHSA, 59% of Oklahomans enrolled in substance use treatment were in treatment for either an alcohol problem only or both drug and alcohol problems, based on a single-day count in 2015. However, most people in Oklahoma who struggle with alcohol use disorder, heavy drinking, binge drinking, or alcohol dependence do not receive the treatment they need. Between 2009 and 2013, only about 7.6% of people struggling with alcohol dependence or abuse received treatment each year; around 92.4 % did not get help each year.
Unlike many states across the US, Oklahoma has not passed laws allowing for medical or recreational use of marijuana. However, in July 2017, a law went into effect that reduced the penalty for all marijuana possession offenses to misdemeanors. As the state has the second highest rate of incarceration in the country, 673 people per 100,000 residents, this change in the law should help reduce nonviolent incarcerations and hopefully will shift focus to substance abuse treatment instead. The state also has laws protecting people who use high-CBD, low-THC cannabis oil for specified medical reasons, although there is still no legal way to obtain the substance in Oklahoma.
Based on 2014-2015 surveys, about 5.4% of Oklahoma adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 used marijuana within the month before being surveyed. This is lower than the national average of about 7.2% for the same age group.
These rates have remained fairly consistent from 2012 to 2015. Between 2011 and 2015, on average about 5.5% of Oklahoman 12- to 17-year-olds had used marijuana for the first time in the year before being surveyed. Based on 2015-2016 national surveys, SAMHSA estimated the following rates for adolescents in Oklahoma aged 12 to 17:
- 11.10% had used marijuana in the past year
- 5.20% had used marijuana in the past month
- 4.59% had started using marijuana in the past year
- 25.48% perceived great risk in once a month smoking marijuana
Regional, State & Local Guides
- New Mexico
- West Texas
- Albuquerque, NM
- Chandler, AZ
- El Paso, TX
- Glendale, AZ
- Henderson, NV
- Las Vegas, NV
- Mesa, AZ
- Phoenix, AZ
- Tucson, AZ
- Scottsdale, AZ
- Oklahoma City, OK
Mental Illness in Oklahoma
In addition to an urgent problem involving substance abuse, many individuals in Oklahoma struggle with mental illness. Based on a 2018 report, Oklahoma had the 19th highest adult prevalence rates of mental illness among the 50 states and Washington, D.C. Approximately 548,000 adults in Oklahoma struggle with mental illness annually, which is about 19.2% of the state’s population.
Comparatively, the national average is around 18%, or about 43,400,000 Americans. Studies have also found a correlation between substance abuse and mental illness. Certain illegal drugs have been known to cause users with addictions to experience one or more mental health problems, according to MentalHealth.Gov.
Furthermore, Oklahoma has the 11th worst access to care ranking. According to SAMHSA, between 2011 and 2015, on average only about 43.4% of adults with mental illness in Oklahoma had received any mental health services in the year before being surveyed. Although the state clearly has a need for better treatment for mental health, budget restraints limit provider and facility availability.
According to the CDC, Oklahoma ranked 8th in the nation for rates of suicide in 2016, with about 21 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people. This is an increase from 2015, where the Oklahoma rate was 20.3, as well as 2014, where the rate was 19.1. The 2016 rate is more than a 40% increase from the 2005 rate of 14.8.
United Way found that Oklahoma had the 9th worst mental health care system for children and adolescents in particular, based on mental illness prevalence and access to treatment services. Across the United States, 50% of all lifetime mental illness cases start by age 14, and 75% start by age 24.
Approximately 90,692 children in Oklahoma have behavioral, emotional, or developmental issues, which is about 8.5% of Oklahoma’s child population. In Oklahoma County alone, it is estimated that 40,269 youths are struggling with mental health problems, but less than 24% of those young people receive the treatment they need.
Oklahomans Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse and Mental Illness
A single-day count of people in substance abuse treatment in Oklahoma in 2015 found 16,783 individuals receiving help. Over 45% of those people reported struggling with drug and alcohol problems; 41% reported a drug problem only while almost 14% reported alcohol problems only. SAMHSA’s 2014 report found that most people over the age of 11 in Oklahoma who need help for drug abuse issues do not get it; between 2005 and 2013, on average 86% of people with illegal drug dependence or abuse did not get any treatment for substance problems in the year before being surveyed.
In 2009, state-funded substance abuse treatment facilities in Oklahoma saw 1,500 older adults (over the age of 49) seek treatment. Nearly 78% of those admissions were men. About 82% of Oklahomans age 50 and up who entered substance abuse treatment were on the state’s Medicaid program, and 10% had Medicare insurance.
A 2015 report stated that an estimated 111,000 adults in Oklahoma with mental illness are uninsured. Unfortunately, waiting lists are long for people without insurance who cannot afford to pay out of pocket for needed treatment for substance abuse, mental health, or both. A 2016 news article states that the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services reported about 600-800 people are typically on waiting lists to receive care at state-contracted facilities, with priority admissions for those with severe substance abuse problems.
According to national data from 2015, the primary drug of choice of individuals over the age of 11 at admission to substance abuse treatment was:
- Alcohol: about 34%
- Opioids: about 34%
- Heroin: around 76% of opioid admissions
- Stimulants: about 9%
- Methamphetamine or amphetamine: about 99% of stimulant admissions
- Cocaine: about 5%
Nonviolent Crime and Incarceration Due to Substances or Mental Health
In both 2015 and 2016, Oklahoma had the highest rate of female imprisonment in the United States, and the second highest total rates of imprisonment. The national average in 2016 was 64 women imprisoned per 100,000 United States female residents; in Oklahoma, that rate was 149 per 100,000 Oklahoma women.
According to a 2015 Washington Times article, Oklahoma corrections officials reported the state’s high imprisonment rate of women is primarily due to substance abuse and mental health conditions; the majority of the 3,211 imprisoned Oklahoma women on a September 2015 single-day count were nonviolent drug offenders serving their first prison sentence. The Corrections Department noted that around 33% (one-third) of re-incarcerated women have previous convictions related to illegal substances.
Nationally, young offenders in juvenile detention have mental illnesses more than three times more often than the general population. Between 25 and 50 percent had substance abuse problems, depending on where they were assessed in the criminal process. In 2011, 12% of all Oklahomans who were arrested for any crime were juveniles, and most of these children were between 15 and 17 years old.
Changes to State Laws
Oklahoma is trying to combat prescription drug abuse. Being caught with possession of a Schedule I or II substance (except marijuana and certain other exceptions) without a legitimate prescription is a felony. This can result in 4-20 years in prison and a fine up to $10,000.
In 2014, the state Senate passed HB 2589, which amended the Oklahoma Trafficking in Illegal Drugs Act to include four often-abused prescription drugs. Individuals possessing specified quantities of morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, or a benzodiazepine can be sentenced to between 10 years and life in prison on the first offense. This is a harsh penalty for people struggling with addiction, but the state hopes this will reduce abuse of these drugs.
Required Credentials for Treatment in Oklahoma
Drug and alcohol addiction is a serious disease that requires treatment. The odds of lasting recovery are greatly increased by going through and completing a quality treatment program.
The Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Service (ODMHSAS) uses certifications for certain mental health and substance abuse providers to regulates standards in an effort to ensure a competent, well-trained mental health workforce. There is also a State Board of Behavioral Health, which licenses and regulates Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs), Licensed Marital and Family Therapists (LMFTs), Licensed Behavioral Practitioners (LBPs), and Licensed Genetic Counselors (LGCs), as well as the Oklahoma State Board of Licensed Alcohol and Drug Counselors which licenses and regulates LADCs.
ODMHSAS certification is required in Oklahoma, per Oklahoma Statute at Title 43A, for the following programs:
- Alcohol and drug treatment
- Community mental health centers
- Eating disorder treatment
- Gambling treatment
- Comprehensive community addiction recovery centers
- Community-based structured crisis centers
- Opioid substitution treatment (medication-assisted therapy)
- Assertive community treatment programs
ODMHSAS operates the Support for Treatment and Recovery Services (STARS) Division, which contracts with 130 substance use disorder treatment providers and runs three residential treatment locations. Additionally, substance abuse treatment providers can be found through SAMHSA’s treatment locator tool.
Veterans living across Oklahoma can get help for PTSD, substance abuse, and other mental, behavioral, or physical health issues through the VA, which even has a substance use disorder program and a PTSD program. Benefits.Gov explains that the VA Alcohol and Drug Dependence Rehabilitation Program offers comprehensive treatment options including detoxification, rehabilitation and psychiatric care to eligible veterans in Oklahoma.
Additional assistance for anyone in Oklahoma may be available through the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS), which may refer those in need to more specific government programs, including insurance assistance. The Oklahoma Healthcare Authority (OHCA) manages the state’s Medicaid program (called SoonerCare) and Insure Oklahoma, a program that helps adults get coverage for healthcare for themselves and their families.
This is certainly something to look into considering individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) spend an average of 30% less than those who don’t receive MAT, explains Medicaid.Gov. As a result, it can greatly reduce the cost of drug rehab in Oklahoma.
When it comes to finding a quality drug treatment program, look for one that offers a comprehensive assessment, customized treatment plans, and aftercare planning.
Although overcoming substance use disorders is challenging, there are some great options for help available. Oklahoma is working hard to improve resources for all residents, including access to healthcare, prevention programs, and more.
- Administration for Community Living. (2016). Older Adults Behavioral Health Profiles.
- U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Oklahoma. (n.d.). Quick Facts.
- Oklahoma Digital Prairie. (n.d.). Oklahoma Indian nations pocket pictorial directory.
- Oklahoma Policy Institute. (n.d.). Substance use disorders are a public health crisis in Oklahoma. Expanding health care coverage will help.
- SAMHSA. (n.d.). United States.
- The Oklahoma Commission on Opioid Abuse. (n.d.). Oklahoma Attorney General Mike Hunter Addresses the Opioid Epidemic.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Drug Overdose Mortality by State.
- Oklahoma Senate. (n.d.). State of Oklahoma Drug Overdose Death 10 Year Comparison.
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (n.d.). Fatality Facts 2017 State by State.
- Vieth, W. (2019). Overdose Deaths Set New Record.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Vital Signs: Variation Among States in Prescribing of Opioid Pain Relievers and Benzodiazepines – United States, 2012.
- Fox, K. (2016). Addicted Oklahoma: The prescription drug problem.
- Reports, S. (2012, March 11). (2019, January 10). State of Addiction: Oklahoma ranked No. 1 state in prescription painkiller abuse.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Drug Overdose Mortality by State.
- Oklahoma Watch. (2019). The Deadliest Month of Prescription Overdoses.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Prescription Opioid Data.
- Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics. (n.d.). Oklahoma Drug Threat Assessment.
- State of Oklahoma. (n.d.). Drug Overdose Death 10 Year Comparison.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Oklahoma Opioid Summary.
- OK.gov. (n.d.). Heroin Fact Sheet.
- Obama White House. (n.d.). Oklahoma Drug Control Update.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). Benzodiazepines and Opioids.
- Vieth, W. (2019). Prescription Drug Deaths Subside; Meth, Heroin Overdoses Soar.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. (n.d.). Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs.
- Reports, S. (2011). New Oklahoma law bans chemicals in synthetic drugs.
- OK.Gov. (n.d.). Alcohol: Its Impact on Our State.
- Alcohol.org. (n.d.). Native Americans Who Struggle with Alcohol Abuse.
- US Bureau of Labor Statistics. (n.d.). National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 2017.
- SAMHSA. (n.d.). Behavioral Health Barometer Oklahoma, 2014.
- SAMHSA. (n.d.). Behavioral Health Barometer Oklahoma, Volume 4.
- Marijuana Policy Project. (n.d.). Oklahoma Legislature revises medical marijuana program.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics. (n.d.). Prisoners in 2016.
- Mental Health America. (n.d.). The State of Mental Health in America 2018.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.). Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders.
- United Way of Central Oklahoma. (n.d.). Vital Signs Central Oklahoma Priorities Mental Health and Substance Abuse.
- The Administration for Community Living. (n.d.). Population of Oklahoma.
- Adcock, C. (n.d.). Where Addiction Holds A Grip In Oklahoma, Yet Treatment Lags.
- SAMHSA. (n.d.). Trends in Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 12 and Older: 2005-2015.
- Oklahoma Drug Statutes Court. (n.d). Oklahoma Statutes Title 63 Public Health and Safety.
- Tally, T. (2015). Substance abuse cited for Oklahoma’s high female prison rate.
- Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy. (n.d.). Oklahoma Juvenile Justice.
- Urbanic Law Firm. (n.d.). Drug Possession Law In Oklahoma.
- The Huffington Post. (n.d.). Oklahoma Tackles the Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic.
- OK.Gov. (n.d.). Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services.
- OK State Board of Behavioral Health. (n.d.). Oklahoma State Board of Licensed Alcohol and Drug Counselors – Approved Continuing Education Course.
- SAMHSA.(n.d.). Facility Finder.
- U.S Department of Veterans Affairs. (n.d.). Oklahoma Location.
- Benefits.gov. (n.d.). Veterans Alcohol and Drug Dependence Rehabilitation Program.
- Oklahoma Department of Human Services. (n.d.). Default.
- Oklahoma Healthcare Authority. (n.d.). Behavioral Health Services.
- Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Substance Use Disorders.